• Different Approaches followed in Six Sigma

    Six Sigma has two key methodologies. These are:

    1. DMAIC
    2. DMADV

    DMAIC is used to improve an existing business process forpredictable, defect-free performance.

    Define     – Scope of the problem

    Measure – Frequency of defects

    Analyze   – The reasons

    Improve – How we can fix

    Control   – Make the process study

    Define deals with defining of the customer needs and the Core Business Process that is followed in which the Customer needs, Requirements and expectation are determined. Upper and lower limits for defects are defined during this phase. Anything falls beyond the boundary of these two limits is termed as defect.

    Measure phase determines the performance of the Core Business process in which all the data is collected for different products including the defective products.

    Analysis phase deals with the analysis of the data collected in the Measure phase and it consists of analyzing the defects to determine the root cause of the defects. Opportunities of improvement are also discussed and prioritized in this phase.

    Improve phase deals with the creation of improvement plans based on the opportunities identified in the Analysis phase. The main emphasis is to improve the process by eliminating the root causes identified in the earlier phase. Statistical methods are used to find out the improvement methods.

    Control phase deals with the implementation of the plan that was created in the ‘Improve’ phase. Control method is administered by the expert people to have continuous favorable results from the improvement methodologies. All these processes should be documented for knowledge management and further use inside the organization.

    DMADV methodology is implemented when there is no process or product in existence in a company and it is mainly used for product improvement.

    Define      – Business case, project plan

    Measure   – Customer needs, priorities (QFD, CTQs)

    analyze    – Architecture / High level design

    Design     – Detailed design

    Verify      – Test and review

    Define deals with defining of the customer needs and the Core Business Process that is followed in which the Customer needs, Requirements and expectation are determined. Upper and lower limits for defects are defined during this phase. Anything falls beyond the boundary of these two limits is termed as defect.

    Measure phase measures and identifies production process capabilities and risk assessments. Risk assessment includes identifying all the potential risks and their mitigation plans.

    Analysis phase deals with development and design of the alternatives, creation of high level design and evaluate design capability to select the best design.

    Design phase is a phase in which a process is designed based on the customer needs, measurement of current process and analysis of the alternatives. In this phase, more emphasis is given to the ultimate that will be followed to reduce defects and improve customer satisfaction.

    Verify phase is a phase in which the selected process is used in real environment and it is continuously verified. Verification aims to ensure that the current process can lead defect reduction and customer needs.

    Similarities between DMAIC and DMADV

    • Both the methodologies are implemented just for one common cause i.e. to reduce the defects to 3.4 defects per million.
    • Both the methodologies are data intensive, the decision of the process is based on the statistical calculation.

    Differences between DMAIC and DMADV

    • DMAIC is used for existing processes while DMADV is used for new processes.
    • In DMADV, the process selected is being verified first before using it while for DMAIC one existing process is improved to reduce defects and improve performance.
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